Biodegradable CpG DNA hydrogels for sustained delivery of doxorubicin and immunostimulatory signals in tumor-bearing mice
Immunostimulatory CpG DNA was self-assembled to form DNA hydrogels for use as a sustained delivery system for both intercalated doxorubicin (DXR) and immunostimulatory CpG motifs for cancer treatment. X-shaped DNA (X-DNA) was designed as a building unit, and underwent ligation to form DNA hydrogels. Two types of X-DNA were constructed using four oligodeoxynucleotides each, one containing six potent CpG motifs (CpG X-DNA) and the other with none (CpG-free X-DNA). CpG X-DNA was more effective than its components or the CpG-free counterpart in terms of the production of tumor necrosis factor-α from murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, as well as maturation of the murine dendritic DC2.4 cells. The cytotoxic effects of X-DNA, DXR and their complexes were examined in a co-culture system of colon26/Luc cells, a murine adenocarcinoma clone stably expressing firefly luciferase, and RAW264.7 cells. DXR/CpG X-DNA showed the highest ability to inhibit the proliferation of colon26/Luc cells. DXR was slowly released from CpG DNA hydrogels. Injections of DXR/CpG DNA hydrogels into a subcutaneous colon26 tumor effectively inhibited tumor growth. These results show that CpG DNA hydrogels are an effective sustained system for delivery of immunostimulatory signals to TLR9-positive immune cells and DXR to cancer cells.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 32, Issue 2, January 2011, Pages 488–494