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Cell-penetrating macromolecules: Direct penetration of amphipathic phospholipid polymers across plasma membrane of living cells

Paper ID Volume ID Publish Year Pages File Format Full-Text
8692 602 2010 8 PDF Available
Title
Cell-penetrating macromolecules: Direct penetration of amphipathic phospholipid polymers across plasma membrane of living cells
Abstract

Nanoscaled materials are normally engulfed in endosomes by energy-dependent endocytosis and fail to access the cytosolic cell machinery. Although some biomolecules may penetrate non-endocytically or fuse with plasma membranes without overt membrane disruption, to date no synthetic macromolecule of comparable size has been shown to exhibit this property. Here, we discovered mechanism of direct cell membrane penetration using synthetic phospholipid polymers. These water-soluble amphiphilic phospholipid polymers enter the cytoplasm of living mammalian cells in vitro within a few minutes without overt bilayer disruption even under conditions where energy-dependent endocytic uptakes are blocked. Furthermore, targeted cytosolic distribution to cell organelles was achieved by selecting specific fluorescent tags to the polymers. Thus, the phospholipid polymers can provide a new way of thinking about access to the cellular interior, namely direct membrane penetration.

Keywords
Phospholipid polymer; Amphiphilicity; Non-endocytosis; Drug delivery; Molecular imaging
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Publisher
Database: Elsevier - ScienceDirect
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 8, March 2010, Pages 2380–2387
Authors
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Subjects
Physical Sciences and Engineering Chemical Engineering Bioengineering
Get Full-Text Now
Don't Miss Today's Special Offer
Price was $35.95
You save - $31
Price after discount Only $4.95
100% Money Back Guarantee
Full-text PDF Download
Online Support
Any Questions? feel free to contact us