Human immune responses to porcine xenogeneic matrices and their extracellular matrix constituents in vitro
Several tissue engineering approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are based on a xenogeneic extracellular matrix. However, the application of engineered heart valves has failed in some patients, causing severe signs of inflammation by so far undetermined processes. Therefore we investigated the immune-mediated responses to porcine valve matrices (native, decellularized and glutaraldehyde-fixed) and to purified xenogeneic extracellular matrix proteins (ECMp). The induction of human immune responses in vitro was evaluated by analyzing the co-stimulatory effects of matrices and ECMp collagen and elastin on the proliferation of immune cell sub-populations via CFSE-based proliferation assays. The pattern of cytokine release was also determined. In porcine matrix punches we demonstrated strong immune responses with the native as well as the decellularized type, in contrast to attenuated effects with glutaraldehyde-fixed matrices. Furthermore, our results indicate that collagen type I (porcine and human) and human elastin were able to elicit proliferation in co-stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody, accompanied by a strong release of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α). In contrast, porcine elastin did not elicit any response at all. This low immunogenic potential of porcine elastin suggests its suitability for the creation of new tissue engineering heart valve scaffolds in the future.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 14, May 2010, Pages 3793–3803