Red blood cell membrane grafting of multi-functional hyperbranched polyglycerols
The covalent attachment of hydrophilic polymers or biopharmaceuticals to the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) has previously been shown as a relatively compatible and effective method for a range of applications. Here, the first example of cell-surface grafting with a hyperbranched and multi-functional macromolecule is described. A range (3 kDa–101 kDa) of dense, globular, and blood compatible hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPG) were synthesized and functionalized with cell-surface reactive, succinimidyl succinate groups (1–12 groups per polymer). Subsequently, HPG was grafted to the RBCs, which were analyzed using physical characterization techniques such as aqueous two-phase partitioning and particle electrophoresis. It was found that the extent of grafting was enhanced by increasing HPG molecular weight, the number of reactive groups per HPG, HPG concentration, and reaction time. Good in vitro cell viability – as measured by lipid peroxidation, hemoglobin oxidation, cell lysis, osmotic fragility, stability in fresh serum and aggregation behavior – was observed for grafting concentrations up to 4.8 mm. The multi-functional aspect of HPG is highlighted by the following observations: using fluorescein-labeled Anti-D (monoclonal) antibody and flow cytometry, the detection of cell-surface Rhesus (RhD) antigens were significantly reduced upon HPG grafting. Secondly, the potential for using HPG as a multi-functional, delivery agent was demonstrated by attaching fluorescent markers to the HPG via degradable linkages prior to grafting.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 14, May 2010, Pages 4167–4178