Synergistic induction of bone formation by hOP-1, hTGF-β3 and inhibition by zoledronate in macroporous coral-derived hydroxyapatites
Thirty coral-derived calcium carbonate-based macroporous constructs with limited hydrothermal conversion to hydroxyapatite (7% HA/CC) were implanted in the rectus abdominis of three adult non-human primate Papio ursinus to investigate the intrinsic induction of bone formation. Macroporous constructs with 125 μg human recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) or 125 μg human recombinant transforming growth factor-β3 (hTGF-β3) were also implanted. The potential synergistic interaction between morphogens was tested by implanting binary applications of hOP-1 and hTGF-β3 5:1 by weight, respectively. To evaluate the role of osteoclastic activity on the implanted macroporous surfaces, coral-derived constructs were pre-loaded with 0.24 mg of bisphosphonate zoledronate (Zometa®). To correlate the morphology of tissue induction with osteogenic gene expression and activation, harvested specimens on day 90 were analyzed for changes in OP-1 and TGF-β3 mRNA synthesis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The induction of bone formation in 7% HA/CC solo correlated with OP-1 expression. Massive bone induction formed by binary applications of the recombinant morphogens. Single applications of hOP-1 and hTGF-β3 also resulted in substantial bone formation, not comparable however to synergistic binary applications. Zoledronate-treated macroporous constructs showed limited bone formation and in two specimens bone formation was altogether absent; qRT-PCR showed a prominent reduction of OP-1 gene expression whilst TGF-β3 expression was far greater than OP-1. The lack of bone formation by zoledronate-treated specimens indicates that osteoclastic activity on the implanted coral-derived constructs is critical for the spontaneous induction of bone formation. Indirectly, zoledronate-treated samples showing lack of OP-1gene expression and absent or very limited bone formation by induction confirm that the spontaneous induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs is initiated by secreted BMPs/OPs, in context the OP-1 isoform.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 25, September 2010, Pages 6400–6410