Relationships between degradability of silk scaffolds and osteogenesis
Bone repairs represent a major focus in orthopedic medicine with biomaterials as a critical aspect of the regenerative process. However, only a limited set of biomaterials are utilized today and few studies relate biomaterial scaffold design to degradation rate and new bone formation. Matching biomaterial remodeling rate towards new bone formation is important in terms of the overall rate and quality of bone regeneration outcomes. We report on the osteogenesis and metabolism of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 3D silk scaffolds. The scaffolds were prepared with two different degradation rates in order to study relationships between matrix degradation, cell metabolism and bone tissue formation in vitro. SEM, histology, chemical assays, real-time PCR and metabolic analyses were assessed to investigate these relationships. More extensively mineralized ECM formed in the scaffolds designed to degrade more rapidly, based on SEM, von Kossa and type I collagen staining and calcium content. Measures of osteogenic ECM were significantly higher in the more rapidly degrading scaffolds than in the more slowly degrading scaffolds over 56 days of study in vitro. Metabolic analysis, including glucose and lactate levels, confirmed the degradation rate differences with the two types of scaffolds, with the more rapidly degrading scaffolds supporting higher levels of glucose consumption and lactate synthesis by the hMSCs upon osteogenesis, in comparison to the more slowly degrading scaffolds. The results demonstrate that scaffold degradation rates directly impact the metabolism of hMSCs, and in turn the rate of osteogenesis. An understanding of the interplay between cellular metabolism and scaffold degradability should aid in the more rational design of scaffolds for bone regeneration needs both in vitro and in vivo.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 24, August 2010, Pages 6162–6172