The relationship between the nanostructure of titanium surfaces and bacterial attachment
Infection of an orthopedic prosthesis is undesirable and causes a decrease in the success rate of an implant. Reducing the adhesion of a broad range of bacteria could be an attractive means to decrease infection and allow for subsequent appropriate tissue integration with the biomaterial surface. In this in vitro study, nanometer sized topographical features of titanium (Ti) surfaces, which have been previously shown to enhance select protein adsorption and subsequent osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions, were investigated as a means to also reduce bacteria adhesion. This study examined the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on conventional Ti, nanorough Ti produced by electron beam evaporation, and nanotubular and nanotextured Ti produced by two different anodization processes. This study found that compared to conventional (nano-smooth) Ti, the nanorough Ti surfaces produced by electron beam evaporation decreased the adherence of all of the aforementioned bacteria the most. The conventional and nanorough Ti surfaces were found to have crystalline TiO2 while the nanotubular and nanotextured Ti surfaces were found to be amorphous. The surface chemistries were similar for the conventional and nanorough Ti while the anodized Ti surfaces contained fluorine. Therefore, the results of this study in vitro study demonstrated that certain nanometer sized Ti topographies may be useful for reducing bacteria adhesion while promoting bone tissue formation and, thus, should be further studied for improving the efficacy of Ti-based orthopedic implants.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 4, February 2010, Pages 706–713