Dose-dependent effect of adipose-derived adult stem cells on vertical bone regeneration in rabbit calvarium
Previous in vivo studies have shown a limited potential for vertical bone regeneration using osteoconductive scaffolds alone. In the present study, we investigated whether the association of adipose-derived adult stem cells (ASCs) with anorganic bovine bone (ABB) scaffold improved bone formation and implant osseointegration in a vertical guided bone regeneration model. Two pre-formed titanium domes were placed on the calvaria of 12 rabbits. Four treatment modalities were evenly distributed among the 24 domes: ABB alone, and ABB containing 3 × 105, 3 × 106, or 3 × 107 cells/graft. After 1 month, the domes were removed and one titanium implant was placed into each augmented site. One month after the second operation, the animals were killed and biopsy specimens were examined by histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses. Results indicated that at all concentrations, the ASC-loaded groups showed significantly more new bone formation and higher mean values of bone–implant contact and bone density inside threads than the ABB group. Furthermore, ASCs demonstrated a dose–response relationship, with the highest dose chosen inducing more robust bone regeneration. This study suggests that the delivery of ASCs on ABB might effectively increase vertical bone regeneration and implant osseointegration, versus ABB alone.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 13, May 2010, Pages 3527–3535