Myogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on a 3D nano fibrous scaffold for bladder tissue engineering
Current strategies for engineering bladder tissues include a bladder biopsy for in vitro cell expansion for use in reconstructive procedures. However, this approach cannot be used in patients with bladder cancer who need a complete bladder replacement. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) might be an alternative cell source to better meet this need. We investigated the effects of soluble growth factors, bladder extracellular matrix (ECM), and 3D dynamic culture on cell proliferation and differentiation of human BMSC into smooth muscle cells (SMC). Myogenic growth factors (PDGF-BB and TGF-β1) alone, or combined either with bladder ECM or dynamic cultures, induced BMSC to express smooth muscle-specific genes and proteins. Either ECM or the dynamic culture alone promoted cell proliferation but did not induce myogenic differentiation of BMSC. A highly porous poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold provided a 3D structure for maximizing the cell-matrix penetration, maintained myogenic differentiation of the induced BMSC, and promoted tissue remolding with rich capillary formation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that myogenic-differentiated BMSC seeded on a nano fibrous PLLA scaffold can be potentially used for cell-based tissue engineering for bladder cancer patients requiring cystoplasty.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 31, Issue 5, February 2010, Pages 870–877