The effect of BisGMA on cyclooxygenase-2 expression, PGE2 production and cytotoxicity via reactive oxygen species- and MEK/ERK-dependent and -independent pathways
After operative restoration, some monomers released from dentin bonding agents or composite resin may induce tissue inflammation and affect the vitality of dental pulp. Whether BisGMA, a major monomer of composite resin, may induce prostaglandin release and cytotoxicity to pulp cells and their mechanisms awaits investigation. We found that BisGMA induced cytotoxicity to human dental pulp cells at concentrations higher than 0.075 mm as analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. BisGMA (0.1 mm) also stimulated ERK phosphorylation, PGE2 production, COX-2 mRNA and protein expression as well as ROS production (as indicated by an increase in cellular DCF fluorescence) in dental pulp cells. Catalase (500 and 1000 U/ml) and U0126 (10 and 20 μm, a MEK inhibitor) effectively prevented the BisGMA-induced ERK activation, PGE2 production and COX-2 expression. Moreover, catalase can protect the pulp cells from BisGMA cytotoxicity, whereas aspirin and U0126 lacked of this protective activity. These results suggest that BisGMA released from composite resin may potentially affect the vitality of dental pulp and induce pulpal inflammation via stimulation of ROS production, MEK/ERK1/2 activation and subsequent COX-2 gene expression and PGE2 production. Cytotoxicity of BisGMA to dental pulp cells is related to ROS production, but not directly mediated by MEK activation and PGE2 production.
Journal: Biomaterials - Volume 30, Issue 25, September 2009, Pages 4070–4077